But since the current is forced to follow the splitting lines, we see that it will either contribute to or resist the field of excitation and this will depend, ceteris paribus, on the direction of the splitting line. If the partition is implemented as indicated by the solid lines in Fig. 4, then it is obvious that if the current is in the same direction as before, that is, from the center to the periphery, its effect will have to intensify the exciting magnet; whereas, if the partition is implemented as indicated by dashed lines, the current produced will tend to weaken the magnet. In the first case, the machine will be able to be excited when the disk rotates in the direction of the arrow D; in the latter case, the direction of rotation must be reversed.
Two such disks can be combined, however, as indicated above, these two disks can either rotate in opposite directions or into one. Such an arrangement can, of course, be realized in a machine in which, instead of this disk, a cylinder rotates. In such unipolar machines of this type, conventional excitation coils and poles can be omitted, and the machine can be made to consist of only a cylinder or two discs surrounded by a metal case. (Dragons’ Lord: what exactly Tesla means – I will tell you below).
Instead of subdividing a disk or cylinder in a spiral, as indicated in Fig.4, it is more convenient to insert one or more turns between the disk and the slip ring at the periphery, as shown in Fig.5.
A Forbes self-excited generator may, for example, be excited in the manner described above. In the author’s experience, instead of removing the current from two such disks with sliding contacts, as usual, a flexible conductive driving belt was used to increase efficiency. The discs in this case are supplied with large flanges, providing great contact with the surface.
The belt must be made so that it engages with the flanges in the tension to compensate for the leakage fit. Several cars with a contact belt were built by the author two years ago, and worked satisfactorily; but due to lack of time, work in this direction was temporarily stopped. Many of the features mentioned above were also used by the author in some types of AC motors.* * *
Actually, that’s the whole article. In general, for a long time I could not understand how the unipolarist works. But once I came across the site of Evgeny Arsentiev http://evg-ars.narod.ru.He has there a tiny divider, “Electric” is called. It is described in it – magnetohydrodynamic engine. This is where I “skipped chip”. Only there the water rotates, and in our case the metal disk, – but the force that makes the working body rotate is the same;).
In general, I managed to fold three different strings into one on the same day. And it dawned on me, – I guessed how Tesla made his super unit generator, about which there are so many rumors. The first thread is the site of Arsentiev. The second is the translation of “notes” from Sib. And the third – I visited at the same time another site http://energy.org.ru, where I unearthed an interesting article. The original article was published in the journal “Inventor and Rationalizer”, No. 2, 1962. It was called “Fog over the Magnetic Field”, meaning the incompetence of some moments in classical physics. To make everything clear, I will bring it here:* * *
– I have to you about the article “illegal statics.” My last name is Rodin.
– One more.
The call of Kaluga inventors to explain what happens to the engine, the rotor of which rotates under the action of an electrostatic field (IL, 6, 81), has touched the minds unusually. Call and write to the editor continuously. We expect in the future to give an overview of the most interesting explanations. Unipolar Induction
I was going to send the Motherland to the authors of the invention, as he suddenly: “I myself have something equally interesting. Let’s go?”
Pleasant, tastefully furnished apartment of Alexander Leontievich is not typically inventive housing. But he leads me to some windowless corner, obviously a closet. “My office”. There is a workbench, a rectifier, devices, tools. On the workbench some design. On the same axis sit two ring permanent magnet, between them a copper disk. Brushes are connected to the disk, the wires of which are connected to the microammeter.
– I collected the same model several years ago, when I needed a unipolar motor for work – it is a disk or cylinder rotating between magnets, and the current from which is removed with brushes. Like this. – Rodin secured the magnets and began to rotate the axis with the handle, and with it the disk. Arrow ammeter crept to the right – there is a current.
– Have you invited me to demonstrate the experience of Faraday? I, you know, back in school …
– And what will happen if we turn the magnets and the disk is still? – as if not noticing my irritation, asked Rodin.
– The same will happen. What’s the difference ? Sorry, but I, unfortunately, have time … – I stopped short. The landlord rotated the magnets around the fixed disk at a solid speed, and the needle stood at zero.
“So I opened my mouth the same way,” Rodin laughed. – Began to look, check contacts – everything is in order. See for yourself, move the disc slightly. In comparison with the spinning magnets, the movement of the disk was insignificant, but the needle immediately moved.
– Well, now, if you rotate the magnets and the disk together, connecting them into a single rotor?
“It seems there should be no current,” I said uncertainly. – After all, they are relatively stationary …
However, the disc and the magnets rotating together gave a current.
And then Rodin showed me a motor without a stator, connecting one of the wires from the rectifier to the axis on which the disk and magnets are sitting, and the other one brought straight to the disk – the whole system spun. Unipolar Induction
– Do you understand why I was interested in the rotor of Kaluga? But they have another. And for my experiences, I have this explanation.
I assume that the traditional concept of a magnetic field, as the indispensable membership of a magnet, is incorrect. In this case, it really wouldn’t matter what about what we move.Oddly enough, no one moved the “endless” magnet along the conductor, at least in the literature I have not seen this. It is much easier to move the conductor through the sliding contacts than the magnets, while maintaining their plane-parallel movement. I not only moved the magnets parallel to the table on which the conductor lay, but also rotated them in different directions and in the opposite direction to the disk movement – the result is the same: the magnitude and direction of the current in the circuit depend only on the speed and direction of disk rotation. So the field is motionless?
I conclude: do not worry, it does not belong to the magnet, but as it were poured into the universe. The magnet only excites him, as the ship excites the waves, not dragging them along. And as with a ship propeller, they are greatest, and the greatest excitation occurs near the magnet. Now it is clear why, rotating with the magnets, the conductor crosses a stationary magnetic field. Unipolar Induction
As for the motion of the rotor without a stator, the only explanation here is the work of the Lorentz forces acting on charged particles moving in a magnetic field. Under their influence, electrons acquire a tangential direction of motion and carry the disk along with the magnets. By the way, there is no reactive moment on the magnets: I installed a magnet between the disks, brought current to it – did not move.
So far I have not found any other explanation for this effect, although I have been searching for a very long time, asking for help from very high scientific institutions. It has been suggested, for example, that with the simultaneous rotation of the magnets and the conductor, the current is induced in the brushes and their wires leading to the ammeter. This, of course, is not the case; otherwise, it would be induced with a fixed disk. Or it would change if you move the conductors themselves, But just in case I assembled the circuit without brushes and wires – the effect is the same.
It was believed that the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field is possible. Slightly plausible, but we will try. I moved the system in this way and that in space, rotated one disk without magnets – no current, of course. So if there are more plausible explanations – just say thank you.
So, one more task for readers: try to find another explanation for the results of the Motherland experiments, by the way, easily reproducible …
And second: how to practically use them? Such rotorless and generally unipolar engines and generators are still weak and have low efficiency. But already today the areas of their application, for example, in instrument engineering, are visible. Particularly attractive is that the engine does not have a stator and a reactive torque. And besides, if these engines and generators really change our understanding of the magnetic field, their practical value can be enormous.
Well, how? – The most real knowledge from the last text is that we can stick magnets directly to the disk. Thus we will receive the WHOLE device, without interacting parts. So I thought right away, dreaming how I would “strain” sponsors on thin (and therefore light), but very powerful ring magnets made of rare-earth metals. We need powerful magnets, because The overall efficiency of the unipolar generator is rather small. Naturally, the radius of the magnets and the disk must be made larger in order to increase the effective area, and hence the level of the voltage produced.